HDMI devices are manufactured to adhere to various versions of the specification, in which each version is given a number or letter, such as 1.0, 1.2, or 1.4b.(p. III) Each subsequent version of the specification uses the same kind of cable but increases the bandwidth or capabilities of what can be transmitted over the cable.(p. III) A product listed as having an HDMI version does not necessarily mean that it has all features in that version, since some HDMI features are optional, such as deep color and xvYCC (which is branded by Sony as "x.v.Color"). Since the release of HDMI 1.4, the HDMI Licensing LLC group (which oversees the HDMI standard) has banned the use of version numbers to identify cables. Non-cable HDMI products, starting on January 1, 2012, may no longer reference the HDMI number, and must state which features of the HDMI specification the product implements.
HDMI 1.0 was released on December 9, 2002 and is a single-cable digital audio/video connector interface. The link architecture is based on DVI, using exactly the same video transmission format but sending audio and other auxiliary data during the blanking intervals of the video stream. HDMI 1.0 allows a maximum TMDS clock of 165 MHz (4.95 Gbit/s bandwidth per link), the same as DVI. It defines two connectors called Type A and Type B, with pinouts based on the Single-Link DVI-D and Dual-Link DVI-D connectors respectively, though the Type B connector was never used in any commercial products. HDMI 1.0 uses 8b/10b encoding for video transmission, giving it 3.96 Gbit/s of video bandwidth (1920 × 1080 or 1920 × 1200 at 60 Hz) and 8-channel LPCM/192 kHz/24-bit audio. HDMI 1.0 requires support for RGB video, with optional support for Y′CBCR 4:4:4 and 4:2:2 (mandatory if the device has support for Y′CBCR on other interfaces). Color depth of 10 bpc (30 bit/px) or 12 bpc (36 bit/px) is allowed when using 4:2:2 subsampling, but only 8 bpc (24 bit/px) color depth is permitted when using RGB or Y′CBCR 4:4:4. Only the Rec. 601 and Rec. 709 color spaces are supported. HDMI 1.0 allows only specific pre-defined video formats, including all the formats defined in EIA/CEA-861-B and some additional formats listed in the HDMI Specification itself. All HDMI sources/sinks must also be capable of sending/receiving native Single-Link DVI video and be fully compliant with the DVI Specification.
HDMI 1.1 was released on May 20, 2004 and added support for DVD-Audio.
HDMI 1.2 was released on August 8, 2005 and added the option of One Bit Audio, used on Super Audio CDs, at up to 8 channels. To make HDMI more suitable for use on PC devices, version 1.2 also removed the requirement that only explicitly supported formats be used. It added the ability for manufacturers to create vendor-specific formats, allowing any arbitrary resolution and refresh rate rather than being limited to a pre-defined list of supported formats. In addition, it added explicit support for several new formats including 720p at 100 and 120 Hz and relaxed the pixel format support requirements so that sources with only native RGB output (PC sources) would not be required to support Y′CBCR output.(§6.2.3)
HDMI 1.3 was released on June 22, 2006, and increased the maximum TMDS clock to 340 MHz (10.2 Gbit/s). Like previous versions, it uses 8b/10b encoding, giving it a maximum video bandwidth of 8.16 Gbit/s (1920 × 1080 at 120 Hz or 2560 × 1440 at 60 Hz). It added support for 10 bpc, 12 bpc, and 16 bpc color depth (30, 36, and 48 bit/px), called deep color. It also added support for the xvYCC color space, in addition to the Rec. 601 and Rec. 709 color spaces supported by previous versions, and added the ability to carry metadata defining color gamut boundaries. It also optionally allows output of Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio streams for external decoding by AV receivers. It incorporates automatic audio syncing (audio video sync) capability. It defined cable Categories 1 and 2, with Category 1 cable being tested up to 74.25 MHz and Category 2 being tested up to 340 MHz.(§4.2.6) It also added the new type C Mini connector for portable devices.(§4.1.1)
HDMI 1.3a was released on November 10, 2006, and had Cable and Sink modifications for type C, source termination recommendations, and removed undershoot and maximum rise/fall time limits. It also changed CEC capacitance limits, and CEC commands for timer control were brought back in an altered form, with audio control commands added. It also added the optional ability to stream SACD in its bitstream DST format rather than uncompressed raw DSD.
HDMI 1.4 was released on May 28, 2009, and first came to market after Q2 of 2009. HDMI 1.4 added support for 4096 × 2160 at 24 Hz, 3840 × 2160 at 24, 25, and 30 Hz, and 1920 × 1080 at 120 Hz.(§6.3.2) It also added an HDMI Ethernet Channel (HEC) that accommodates a 100 Mbit/s Ethernet connection between the two HDMI connected devices so they can share an Internet connection, introduced an audio return channel (ARC), 3D Over HDMI, a new Micro HDMI Connector, an expanded set of color spaces with the addition of sYCC601, Adobe RGB and Adobe YCC601, and an Automotive Connection System. HDMI 1.4 defined several stereoscopic 3D formats including field alternative (interlaced), frame packing (a full resolution top-bottom format), line alternative full, side-by-side half, side-by-side full, 2D + depth, and 2D + depth + graphics + graphics depth (WOWvx). HDMI 1.4 requires that 3D displays implement the frame packing 3D format at either 720p50 and 1080p24 or 720p60 and 1080p24. High Speed HDMI cables as defined in HDMI 1.3 work with all HDMI 1.4 features except for the HDMI Ethernet Channel, which requires the new High Speed HDMI Cable with Ethernet defined in HDMI 1.4.
HDMI 1.4a was released on March 4, 2010, and added two mandatory 3D formats for broadcast content, which was deferred with HDMI 1.4 pending the direction of the 3D broadcast market. HDMI 1.4a has defined mandatory 3D formats for broadcast, game, and movie content. HDMI 1.4a requires that 3D displays implement the frame packing 3D format at either 720p50 and 1080p24 or 720p60 and 1080p24, side-by-side horizontal at either 1080i50 or 1080i60, and top-and-bottom at either 720p50 and 1080p24 or 720p60 and 1080p24.
HDMI 1.4b was released on October 11, 2011, containing only minor clarifications to the 1.4a document. HDMI 1.4b is the last version of the standard that HDMI Licensing, LLC is responsible for. All future versions of the HDMI Specification were produced by the HDMI Forum, created on October 25, 2011.
HDMI 2.0 increases the maximum bandwidth to 18.0 Gbit/s. HDMI 2.0 uses 8b/10b encoding for video transmission like previous versions, giving it a maximum video bandwidth of 14.4 Gbit/s. This enables HDMI 2.0 to carry 4K video at 60 Hz with 24 bit/px color depth. Other features of HDMI 2.0 include support for the Rec. 2020 color space, up to 32 audio channels, up to 1536 kHz audio sample frequency, dual video streams to multiple users on the same screen, up to four audio streams, 4:2:0 chroma subsampling, 25 fps 3D formats, support for the 21:9 aspect ratio, dynamic synchronization of video and audio streams, the HE-AAC and DRA audio standards, improved 3D capability, and additional CEC functions.
HDMI 2.0b was released March, 2016. HDMI 2.0b initially supported the same HDR10 standard as HDMI 2.0a as specified in the CTA-861.3 specification. In December 2016 additional support for HDR Video transport was added to HDMI 2.0b in the recently released CTA-861-G specification, which extends the static metadata signaling to include Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG).
HDMI 2.1 was officially announced by the HDMI Forum on January 4, 2017, and was released on November 28, 2017. It adds support for higher resolutions and higher refresh rates, including 4K 120 Hz and 8K 120 Hz. HDMI 2.1 also introduces a new HDMI cable category called Ultra High Speed (referred to as 48G during development), which certifies cables at the new higher speeds that these formats require. Ultra High Speed HDMI cables are backwards compatible with older HDMI devices, and older cables are compatible with new HDMI 2.1 devices, though the full 48 Gbit/s bandwidth is not possible without the new cables.
Maximum supported resolution is 10K at 120 Hz
Dynamic HDR for specifying HDR metadata on a scene-by-scene or even a frame-by-frame basis
Display Stream Compression (DSC) 1.2 is used for video formats higher than 8K with 4:2:0 chroma subsampling
High Frame Rate (HFR) for 4K, 8K, and 10K, which adds support for refresh rates up to 120 Hz
Enhanced refresh rate features:
Variable Refresh Rate (VRR) reduces or eliminates lag, stutter and frame tearing for more fluid motion in games
Quick Media Switching (QMS) for movies and video eliminates the delay that can result in blank screens before content is displayed
Quick Frame Transport (QFT) reduces latency
Auto Low Latency Mode (ALLM) automatic latency setting to the lowest ideal latency
Video formats that require more bandwidth than 18.0 Gbit/s (4K 60 Hz 8 bpc RGB), such as 4K 60 Hz 10 bpc (HDR), 4K 120 Hz, and 8K 60 Hz, may require the new "Ultra High Speed" or "Ultra High Speed with Ethernet" cables. HDMI 2.1's other new features are supported with existing HDMI cables.
The increase in maximum bandwidth is achieved by increasing both the bitrate of the data channels and the number of channels. Previous HDMI versions use three data channels (each operating at up to 6.0 GHz in HDMI 2.0, or up to 3.4 GHz in HDMI 1.4), with an additional channel for the TMDS clock signal, which runs at a fraction of the data channel speed (one tenth the speed, or up to 340 MHz, for signaling rates up to 3.4 GHz; one fortieth the speed, or up to 150 MHz, for signaling rates between 3.4 and 6.0 GHz). HDMI 2.1 doubles the signaling rate of the data channels to 12 GHz (12 Gbit/s). The structure of the data has been changed to use a new packet-based format with an embedded clock signal, which allows what was formerly the TMDS clock channel to be used as a fourth data channel instead, increasing the signaling rate across that channel to 12 GHz as well. These changes increase the aggregate bandwidth from 18.0 Gbit/s (3 × 6.0 Gbit/s) to 48.0 Gbit/s (4 × 12.0 Gbit/s), a 2.66x improvement in bandwidth. In addition, the data is transmitted more efficiently by using a 16b/18b encoding scheme, which uses a larger percentage of the bandwidth for data rather than DC balancing compared to the 8b/10b scheme used by previous versions (88.8% compared to 80%). This, in combination with the 2.66x bandwidth, raises the maximum data rate of HDMI 2.1 from 14.4 Gbit/s to 42.66 Gbit/s, approximately 2.96x the data rate of HDMI 2.0.
The 48 Gbit/s bandwidth provided by HDMI 2.1 is enough for 8K resolution at approximately 50 Hz, with 8 bpc RGB or Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color. To achieve even higher formats, HDMI 2.1 can use Display Stream Compression with a compression ratio of up to 3:1. Using DSC, formats up to 8K (7680 × 4320) 120 Hz or 10K (10240 × 4320) 100 Hz at 8 bpc RGB/4:4:4 are possible. Using Y′CBCR with 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 chroma subsampling in combination with DSC can allow for even higher formats.
The "version" of a connection depends on the versions of the HDMI ports on the source and sink devices, not on the HDMI cable. The different categories of HDMI cable only affect the bandwidth (maximum resolution / refresh rate) of the connection. Other features such as audio, 3D, chroma subsampling, or variable refresh rate depend only on the versions of the ports, and are not affected by what type of HDMI cable is used. The only exception to this is Ethernet-over-HDMI, which requires an "HDMI with Ethernet" cable.
Products are not required to implement all features of a version to be considered compliant with that version, as most features are optional. For example, displays with HDMI 1.4 ports do not necessarily support the full 340 MHz TMDS clock allowed by HDMI 1.4; they are commonly limited to lower speeds such as 300 MHz (1080p 120 Hz) or even as low as 165 MHz (1080p 60 Hz) at the manufacturer's discretion, but are still considered HDMI 1.4-compliant. Likewise, features like 10 bpc (30 bit/px) color depth may also not be supported, even if the HDMI version allows it and the display supports it over other interfaces such as DisplayPort.
Feature support will therefore vary from device to device, even within the same HDMI version.
|Release Date||Dec 2002 (1.0)|
May 2004 (1.1)
Aug 2005 (1.2)
Dec 2005 (1.2a)
|Jun 2006 (1.3)|
Nov 2006 (1.3a)
|Jun 2009 (1.4)|
Mar 2010 (1.4a)
Oct 2011 (1.4b)
|Sep 2013 (2.0)|
Apr 2015 (2.0a)
Mar 2016 (2.0b)
|Transmission Bandwidth[a]||4.95 Gbit/s||10.2 Gbit/s||10.2 Gbit/s||18.0 Gbit/s||48.0 Gbit/s|
|Maximum Data Rate[b]||3.96 Gbit/s||8.16 Gbit/s||8.16 Gbit/s||14.4 Gbit/s||42.6 Gbit/s|
|Maximum Character Rate[c]||165 MHz(§3)||340 MHz||340 MHz||600 MHz(§6.1.1)||1.2 GHz|
|Compression (Optional)||-||-||-||-||DSC 1.2|
|Color Format Support|
|Color Depth Support|
|8 bpc (24 bit/px)||Yes(§3)||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|10 bpc (30 bit/px)||Yes[f]||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|12 bpc (36 bit/px)||Yes[f]||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|16 bpc (48 bit/px)||No||Yes(§6.5)||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Color Space Support|
|Adobe RGB (1998)||No||No||Yes(§188.8.131.52)||Yes||Yes|
|Max. Sample Rate Per Channel||192 kHz(§7.3)||192 kHz||192 kHz||192 kHz||192 kHz|
|Max. Aggregate Sample Rate||?||?||768 kHz(§7.3)||1536 kHz(§9.2)||1536 kHz|
|Sample Size||16–24 bits(§7.3)||16–24 bits||16–24 bits||16–24 bits||16–24 bits|
|Maximum Audio Channels||8(§7.3.1)||8||8||32(§8.3.1)||32|
Total transmission bandwidth is equal to the number of data channels multiplied by the bandwidth per channel (binary digits transmitted per second). Each channel transmits one bit (binary digit) per signal, and signals at ten times the character rate. Therefore, the total bandwidth (in Mbit/s) = 10 × (character rate in MHz) × (# of data channels).
Some of the transmitted bits are used for encoding purposes rather than representing data, so the rate at which video data can be transmitted across the HDMI interface is only a portion of the total bandwidth.
The character rate is the number of 10-bit characters per second transmitted across one HDMI data channel. This is sometimes informally referred to as the pixel clock or TMDS clock because these terms were once equivalent in past HDMI versions.(§4.2.2)
8b/10b encoding uses 10 bits of bandwidth to send 8 bits of data, so only 80% of the bandwidth is available for data throughput. 16b/18b encoding uses 18 bits of bandwidth to send 16 bits of data, so 88.8% of the bandwidth is available for data throughput.
Although HDMI 1.4 does not officially allow 4:2:0 chroma subsampling, NVIDIA and AMD have added 4:2:0 support to their HDMI 1.4 graphics cards via driver updates
HDMI 1.0 and 1.1 permit 10 bpc and 12 bpc color depth only when Y′CBCR 4:2:2 color format is used. When using RGB or Y′CBCR 4:4:4, only 8 bpc color is permitted.(§6.5)
HDMI 1.0 and 1.1 are restricted to transmitting only certain video formats,(§6.1) defined in EIA/CEA-861-B and in the HDMI Specification itself.(§6.3) HDMI 1.2 and all later versions allow any arbitrary resolution and frame rate (within the bandwidth limit). Formats that are not supported by the HDMI Specification (i.e., no standardized timings defined) may be implemented as a vendor-specific format. Successive versions of the HDMI Specification continue to add support for additional formats (such as 4K resolutions), but the added support is to establish standardized timings to ensure interoperability between products, not to establish which formats are or aren't permitted. Video formats do not require explicit support from the HDMI Specification in order to be transmitted and displayed.(§6.1)
Individual products may have heavier limitations than those listed below, since HDMI devices are not required to support the maximum bandwidth of the HDMI version that they implement. Therefore, it is not guaranteed that a display will support the refresh rates listed in this table, even if the display has the required HDMI version.
Uncompressed 8 bpc (24 bit/px) color depth and RGB or Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color format are assumed on this table except where noted.
|Video Format||HDMI Version / Maximum Data Rate|
|3.96 Gbit/s||3.96 Gbit/s||8.16 Gbit/s||14.4 Gbit/s||42.6 Gbit/s|
|720p||1280 × 720||30||720 Mbit/s||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1080p||1920 × 1080||30||1.58 Gbit/s||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1440p||2560 × 1440||30||2.78 Gbit/s||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|4K||3840 × 2160||30||6.18 Gbit/s||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|5K||5120 × 2880||30||10.94 Gbit/s||No||No||4:2:2[b]||Yes||Yes|
|8K||7680 × 4320||30||24.48 Gbit/s||No||No||No||4:2:0[b]||Yes|
Uncompressed 8 bpc (24 bit/px) color depth with RGB or Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color format and CVT-R2 timing are used to calculate these data rates. Uncompressed data rate for RGB images in bits per second is calculated as bits per pixel × pixels per frame × frames per second. Pixels per frame includes blanking intervals as defined by CVT-R2.
Possible by using Y′CBCR with 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 subsampling (as noted)
Possible by using Display Stream Compression (DSC)
HDR10 requires 10 bpc (30 bit/px) color depth, which uses 25% more bandwidth than standard 8 bpc video.
Uncompressed 10 bpc color depth and RGB or Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color format are assumed on this table except where noted.
|Video Format||HDMI Version / Maximum Data Rate|
|14.4 Gbit/s||42.6 Gbit/s|
|1080p||1920 × 1080||60||4.00 Gbit/s||Yes||Yes|
|1440p||2560 × 1440||60||7.04 Gbit/s||Yes||Yes|
|4K||3840 × 2160||50||13.00 Gbit/s||Yes||Yes|
|5K||5120 × 2880||30||13.67 Gbit/s||Yes||Yes|
|8K||7680 × 4320||30||30.60 Gbit/s||No||Yes|
Uncompressed 10 bpc (30 bit/px) color depth with RGB or Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color format and CVT-R2 timing are used to calculate these data rates. Uncompressed data rate for RGB images in bits per second is calculated as bits per pixel × pixels per frame × frames per second. Pixels per frame includes blanking intervals as defined by CVT-R2.
Possible by using Y′CBCR with 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 subsampling (as noted)
Possible by using Display Stream Compression (DSC)
|Full HD Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD video[a]||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Consumer Electronic Control (CEC)[b]||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Super Audio CD (DSD)[c]||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Dolby TrueHD / DTS-HD Master Audio bitstream capable||No||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Updated list of CEC commands[d]||No||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Ethernet channel (100 Mbit/s)||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Audio return channel (ARC)||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|4 audio streams||No||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|2 video streams (Dual View)||No||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) HDR OETF (SMPTE ST 2084)||No||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) HDR OETF||No||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|Static HDR metadata (SMPTE ST 2086)||No||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|Dynamic HDR metadata (SMPTE ST 2094)||No||No||No||No||No||No||Yes|
|Enhanced audio return channel (eARC)||No||No||No||No||No||No||Yes|
|Variable Refresh Rate (VRR)||No||No||No||No||No||No||Yes|
|Quick Media Switching (QMS)||No||No||No||No||No||No||Yes|
|Quick Frame Transport (QFT)||No||No||No||No||No||No||Yes|
|Auto Low Latency Mode (ALLM)||No||No||No||No||No||No||Yes|
|Display Stream Compression (DSC)||No||No||No||No||No||No||Yes|
Even for a compressed audio codec that a given HDMI version cannot transport, the source device may be able to decode the audio codec and transmit the audio as uncompressed LPCM.
Large number of additions and clarifications for CEC commands. One addition is CEC command, allowing for volume control of an AV receiver.(§CEC-1.3)